Innate and acquired chemoresistance exhibited by most tumours exposed to conventional chemotherapeutic agents account for the majority of relapse cases in cancer patients. Such chemoresistance phenotypes are of a multi-factorial nature from multiple key molecular players. The discovery of the RNA interference pathway in 1998 and the widespread gene regulatory influences exerted by microRNAs (miRNAs) and other non-coding RNAs have certainly expanded the level of intricacy present for the development of any single physiological phenotype, including cancer chemoresistance. Researchers from the University of Malta and Ghent University review the latest research efforts in identifying and validating specific key molecular players from the two main families of non-coding RNAs, namely miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), having direct or indirect influences in the development of cancer drug resistance properties and how such knowledge can be utilised for novel theranostics in oncology.
Model of miRNA and lncRNA influences on varying molecular pathway mechanisms leading to downstream effects on cancer chemoresistance phenotypes.