Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among US males. There is an urgent unmet need to develop sensitive and specific biomarkers for the early detection of prostate cancer to reduce overtreatment and accompanying morbidity. Researchers at the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute identified a group of differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs in prostate cancer cell lines and patient samples and further characterized six long noncoding RNAs (AK024556, XLOC_007697, LOC100287482, XLOC_005327, XLOC_008559, and XLOC_009911) in prostatic adenocarcinoma tissue samples (Gleason score >6.0) and compared them with matched normal (healthy) tissues. Interestingly, these markers were also successfully detected in patient urine samples and were found to be up-regulated when compared with normal (healthy) urine. AK024556 (SPRY4-IT1) was highly up-regulated in human prostate cancer cell line PC3 but not in LNCaP, and siRNA knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 in PC3 cells inhibited cell proliferation and invasion and increased cell apoptosis. Chromogenic in situ hybridization assay was developed to detect long noncoding RNAs in primary prostatic adenocarcinoma tissue samples, paving the way for clinical diagnostics. The researchers believe that these results will set the stage for more extensive studies to develop novel long noncoding RNA-based diagnostic assays for early prostate cancer detection and will help to distinguish benign prostate cancer from precancerous lesions.
- Lee B, Mazar J, Aftab MN, Qi F, Shelley J, Li JL, Govindarajan S, Valerio F, Rivera I, Thurn T, Tran TA, Kameh D, Patel V, Perera RJ. (2014) Long noncoding RNAs as putative biomarkers for prostate cancer detection. J Mol Diagn 16(6):615-26. [abstract]