Cancer is a disease of aberrant gene expression. While the genetic causes of cancer have been intensively studied, it is becoming evident that a large proportion of cancer susceptibility cannot be attributed to variation in protein-coding sequences. This is highlighted by genome-wide association studies in cancer that reveal that more than 80% of cancer-associated SNPs occur in noncoding regions of the genome.
In this review, the authors posit that a significant fraction of the genetic aetiology of cancer is exacted by noncoding regulatory sequences, particularly by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Recent studies indicate that several cancer risk loci are transcribed into lncRNAs and these transcripts play key roles in tumorigenesis. They discuss the epigenetic and other mechanisms through which lncRNAs function and how they contribute to each stage of cancer progression, understanding of which will be crucial for realising new opportunities in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Long noncoding RNAs play important roles in almost every aspect of cell biology from nuclear organisation and epigenetic regulation to post-transcriptional regulation and splicing, and they link these processes to the hallmarks and genetics of cancer. Finally, the authors highlight recent progress and future potential in the application of lncRNAs as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers.
- Cheetham SW, Gruhl F, Mattick JS, Dinger ME. (2013) Long noncoding RNAs and the genetics of cancer. Br J Cancer [Epub ahead of print]. [article]