Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of gene expression in the immune system. Studies have shown that lncRNAs are expressed in a highly lineage-specific manner and control the differentiation and function of innate and adaptive cell types.
Here, Stanford University researchers discuss mechanisms used by lncRNAs to regulate genes encoding products involved in the immune response, including direct interactions with chromatin, RNA and proteins. In addition, they address new areas of lncRNA biology, such as the functions of enhancer RNAs, circular RNAs and chemical modifications to RNA in cellular processes. The authors emphasize critical gaps in knowledge and future prospects for the roles of lncRNAs in the immune system and autoimmune disease.
lncRNAs function by interacting with DNA, RNA and proteins