Accumulating evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Although a few lncRNAs have long been recognized to have important functions, the vast majority of this class of molecules remains uncharacterized. Because lncRNAs are more abundant in human brain than protein-coding RNAs, it is likely that they contribute to brain disorders, including ASD. The authors review here the known functions of lncRNAs and the potential contributions of lncRNAs to ASD.
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