Monthly Archives: May 2013

Gene regulation by the act of long non-coding RNA transcription

lncRNAs

Long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are proposed to be the largest transcript class in the mouse and human transcriptomes. Two important questions are whether all lncRNAs are functional and how they could exert a function. Several lncRNAs have been shown to function through their product, but this is not the only possible mode of action. In this review the authors focus ...

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Transposable Elements Are Major Contributors to the Origin, Diversification, and Regulation of Vertebrate Long Noncoding RNAs

lncRNA

An unexpected layer of complexity in the genomes of humans and other vertebrates lies in the abundance of genes that do not appear to encode proteins but produce a variety of non-coding RNAs. In particular, the human genome is currently predicted to contain 5,000–10,000 independent gene units generating long (>200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). While there is growing evidence that ...

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lncRNA Patent Application – Long Non-Coding RNA SPRY4-II1 As A Diagnostic And Therapeutic Agent

United States Patent Application 20130136786 Kind Code A1 Perera; Ranjan May 30, 2013 LONG NON-CODING RNA SPRY4-IT1 AS A DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC AGENT AbstractProvided herein are methods for the diagnosis of cancer by comparison of a quantification of long non-coding RNA SPRY4-IT1 with the same measurement taken in a reference sample from a healthy patient. Further provided herein are methods ...

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Cytotopic localization by long noncoding RNAs

lncRNA

Cells are highly organized structures. In addition to membrane delimited organelles, proteins and RNAs can organize themselves into specific domains. Some examples include stress granules and subnuclear bodies. This level of organization is essential for the correct execution of multiple processes in the cell, ranging from cell signaling to assembly of structures such as the ribosomes. Here the authors review ...

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Ribosome profiling reveals resemblance between long non-coding RNAs and 5' leaders of coding RNAs

lncRNA

Large-scale genomics and computational approaches have identified thousands of putative long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). It has been controversial, however, as to what fraction of these RNAs is truly non-coding. Here, researchers from Harvard University and MIT combined ribosome profiling with a machine-learning approach to validate lncRNAs during zebrafish development in a high throughput manner. They found that dozens of proposed ...

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Analysis of long non-coding RNAs produced by a specialized RNA Polymerase in Arabidopsis thaliana

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in several processes including control of gene expression. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a class of lncRNAs is produced by a specialized RNA Polymerase V (Pol V), which is involved in controlling genome activity by transcriptional gene silencing. lncRNAs produced by Pol V have been proposed to serve as scaffolds for binding of several silencing ...

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Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR Is a Prognostic Marker for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression and Survival

lncRNA

It is currently unclear whether the expression of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) correlates with the progression of esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine HOTAIR expression in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and explore its clinical significance. Differences in the expression of HOTAIR were examined via in situ hybridization (ISH) and quantitative reverse transcriptase ...

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Long Noncoding RNAs May Alter Chromosome's 3D Structure

lncRNA

by Elizabeth Pennisi – Science Magazine Our 21,000 protein-coding genes aren’t the only readable units in our genome. At last count, another 13,000 “genes” specify mysterious molecules called long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and when the final tallies are in, they may outnumber protein-coding genes. But what are these RNAs good for? Some researchers have suggested that they represent “noise”: DNA ...

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Novel Long Non-Coding RNAs Are Regulated by Angiotensin II in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

lncRNA

Misregulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) actions can lead to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Evaluating transcriptomic responses to Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is important to understand the gene networks regulated by Ang II which might uncover previously unidentified mechanisms and new therapeutic targets. Researchers at the Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope set out to ...

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