Monthly Archives: April 2013

Cedric Notredame: “We want to understand under what pressure evolves long noncoding RNA”

According to the ENCODE‘s latest update in the human genome there are about 10,000 long sequences of RNA that do not code for any protein. Cedric Notredame’s lab at the Center for genomic Regulation (CRG) tries to detect these molecules not only in humans but also in other species to understand their functionality. Cedric Notredame explained his research at a ...

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Low levels of RNA linked to schizophrenia

from the Sydney Morning Herald by Nicky Phillips Australian scientists have described how some neurons in the brain switch off certain genes as part of normal brain function, a process that appeared disturbed in people with schizophrenia. While most people were familiar with the role DNA played instructing the body’s cells to produce proteins, a far greater amount of genetic ...

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Featured long non-coding RNA – Llme23

Several lines of evidence support the notion that increased RNA-binding ability of polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) and aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are associated with mouse and human tumors. To identify the PSF-binding lncRNA involved in human oncogenesis, researchers at Sichuan University, China screened a nuclear RNA repertoire of human melanoma cell line, YUSAC, through ...

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Transposable Elements Are Major Contributors to the Origin, Diversification, and Regulation of Vertebrate Long Noncoding RNAs

transposable elements

An unexpected layer of complexity in the genomes of humans and other vertebrates lies in the abundance of genes that do not appear to encode proteins but produce a variety of non-coding RNAs. In particular, the human genome is currently predicted to contain 5,000–10,000 independent gene units generating long (>200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). While there is growing evidence that ...

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The role of long non-coding RNA in transcriptional gene silencing

Transcriptional gene silencing controls the activity of transposable elements and expression of protein-coding genes. It requires non-coding transcription, which in plants is performed by RNA Polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V). Pol IV produces precursors for siRNA biogenesis while Pol V produces scaffold transcripts required for siRNAs and associated proteins to recognize their target loci. In this ...

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Advances in understanding chromosome silencing by the long non-coding RNA Xist

In female mammals, one of the two X chromosomes becomes genetically silenced to compensate for dosage imbalance of X-linked genes between XX females and XY males. X chromosome inactivation (X-inactivation) is a classical model for epigenetic gene regulation in mammals and has been studied for half a century. In the last two decades, efforts have been focused on the X ...

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N-myc and noncoding RNAs in neuroblastoma

N-myc

Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. Amplification and overexpression of the MYCN proto-oncogene occurs in approximately 20% of neuroblastomas and is associated with advanced stage disease, rapid tumor progression, and poor prognosis. MYCN encodes the transcriptional regulator N-myc, which has been shown to both up- and downregulate many target genes involved in cell cycle, DNA damage, ...

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Dysregulation of the long non-coding RNA transcriptome in a Rett syndrome mouse model

Mecp2 is a transcriptional repressor protein that is mutated in Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is the second most common cause of mental retardation in women. It has been shown that the loss of the Mecp2 protein in Rett syndrome cells alters the transcriptional silencing of coding genes and microRNAs. Here researchers from the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), ...

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Thesis Defense – Control of microbial susceptibility and chromatin activation of interferon gamma by a long noncoding RNA

Thesis Defense by Antonio Gomez, Kirkegaard Lab, Department of Microbiology & Immunology. When: Thursday, May 2, 2013. 12:00 PM. Approximate duration of 1.0 hour(s). Where: LKSC 120 (Map) Sponsor: Department of Microbiology and Immunology Contact: 725-4753 llewys@stanford.edu Audience: General Public, Faculty/Staff, Students, Alumni/Friends, Members Permalink: http://events.stanford.edu/events/376/37625

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Control of myogenesis by rodent SINE-containing lncRNAs

SINE

Staufen1-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) degrades mRNAs that harbor a Staufen1-binding site (SBS) in their 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Human SBSs can form by intermolecular base-pairing between a 3′ UTR Alu element and an Alu element within a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) called a ½-sbsRNA. Since Alu elements are confined to primates, it was unclear how SMD occurs in rodents. Here, ...

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