Tag Archives: lncrna

Role of the lncRNA-p53 regulatory network in cancer

lncRNA

Advances in functional genomics have led to discovery of a large group of previous uncharacterized long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Emerging evidence indicates that lncRNAs may serve as master gene regulators through various mechanisms. Dysregulation of lncRNAs is often associated with a variety of human diseases including cancer. Of significant interest, recent studies suggest that lncRNAs participate in the p53 tumor suppressor regulatory network. In this review, the authors discuss how lncRNAs serve as p53 regulators or p53 effectors. Further characterization of these p53-associated lncRNAs in cancer will provide a better understanding of lncRNA-mediated gene regulation in the p53 pathway. As a result, lncRNAs may prove to be valuable biomarkers for cancer diagnosis or potential targets for cancer therapy.

  • Zhang A, Xu M, Mo YY. (2014) Role of the lncRNA-p53 regulatory network in cancer. J Mol Cell Biol [Epub ahead of print]. [article]

The four dimensions of noncoding RNA conservation

Evolutionary conservation is widely used as an indicator of the functional significance of newly discovered genes. Although the simple search for homology at the nucleotide or amino acid sequence level has proven to be valuable for protein-coding genes, these criteria are too narrow to describe fully the selection process for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). LncRNA conservation includes four dimensions: the sequence, structure, function, and expression from syntenic loci. Two recently described knockout mouse models for the lincRNAs metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) and HOX antisense intergenic RNA (Hotair) highlight the multifaceted levels of conservation.

lncRNA

  • Diederichs S. (2014) The four dimensions of noncoding RNA conservation. Trends Genet  [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Incoming search terms:

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  • The Long Noncoding RNA MALAT1 Regulates Endothelial Cell Function and Vessel Growth

Non-coding RNA interact to regulate neuronal development and function

The human brain is one of the most complex biological systems, and the cognitive abilities have greatly expanded compared to invertebrates without much expansion in the number of protein coding genes. This suggests that gene regulation plays a very important role in the development and function of nervous system, by acting at multiple levels such as transcription and translation. In this article the authors discuss the regulatory roles of three classes of non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs)-microRNAs (miRNAs), piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs) and long-non-coding RNA (lncRNA), in the process of neurogenesis and nervous function including control of synaptic plasticity and potential roles in neurodegenerative diseases.

miRNAs are involved in diverse processes including neurogenesis where they channelize the cellular physiology toward neuronal differentiation. miRNAs can also indirectly influence neurogenesis by regulating the proliferation and self renewal of neural stem cells and are dysregulated in several neurodegenerative diseases. miRNAs are also known to regulate synaptic plasticity and are usually found to be co-expressed with their targets. The dynamics of gene regulation is thus dependent on the local architecture of the gene regulatory network (GRN) around the miRNA and its targets. piRNAs had been classically known to regulate transposons in the germ cells. However, piRNAs have been, recently, found to be expressed in the brain and possibly function by imparting epigenetic changes by DNA methylation. piRNAs are known to be maternally inherited and we assume that they may play a role in early development. The authors also explore the possible function of piRNAs in regulating the expansion of transposons in the brain. Brain is known to express several lncRNA but functional roles in brain development are attributed to a few lncRNA while functions of most of the them remain unknown. They review the roles of some known lncRNA and explore the other possible functions of lncRNAs including their interaction with miRNAs.

lncRNA

  • Iyengar BR, Choudhary A, Sarangdhar MA, Venkatesh KV, Gadgil CJ, Pillai B. (2014) Non-coding RNA interact to regulate neuronal development and function. Front Cell Neurosci 8:47. [article]

Incoming search terms:

  • lncRNA nuclear function position
  • microrna review 2014 neural stem cell
  • miRNa LNCrna

Investigation of Circulating LncRNAs in B-cell Neoplasms

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) which are longer than 200 base pairs in length, play important role in the cellular machinery. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are neoplasms of B-cells.

Researchers at Istanbul University aimed to investigate circulating lncRNA levels of CLL and MM patients. For this purpose they selected 5 candidate lncRNAs (TUG1, LincRNA-p21, MALAT1, HOTAIR, and GAS5) where the first two are regulated by p53. Analyses were performed by real-time PCR using cDNA synthesized from plasma RNAs. In both disease groups differential levels of plasma lncRNAs were observed. LincRNA-p21 was the only molecule displaying significant changes in the CLL group while all remaining lncRNAs showed significant differences in the MM group. In the MM group only TUG1 showed higher levels than the healthy volunteers. In conclusion, the expression levels of the candidate lncRNA molecules display a general trend for tissue- and disease-specific expression which can provide important potential biomarkers specific to the particular disease type.

lncRNA

  • Isin M, Ozgur E, Cetin G, Erten N, Aktan M, Gezer U, Dalay N. (2014) Investigation of Circulating LncRNAs in B-cell Neoplasms. Clin Chim Acta [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Incoming search terms:

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Featured long non-coding RNA – Antisense Sirt1

srit1-feat

Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) exist ubiquitously as pivotal molecules to regulate coding gene expression. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a NAD-dependent deacetylase which is involved in myogenesis. However, whether Sirt1 transcribes NAT during C2C12 differentiation is still unknown. In this study, researchers at Northwest A&F University, China identified a Sirt1 NAT which was designated as Sirt1 antisense long non-coding RNA (AS lncRNA) by sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. The level of Sirt1 AS lncRNA was greater in spleen but less in muscle tissue. The expression of both Sirt1 mRNA and Sirt1 AS lncRNA decreased during C2C12 myogenic differentiation, whereas the levels of miR-34a, which targets Sirt1, increased gradually. They further found that the half-life of Sirt1 AS lncRNA was 10h, but that of Sirt1 mRNA was 6h in C2C12 cells treated with 2μg/ml Actinomycin D. Therefore, compared with Sirt1 mRNA, Sirt1 AS lncRNA was more stable. Overexpression of Sirt1 AS lncRNA increased the levels of Sirt1 protein, whereas overexpression of Sirt1 AS lncRNA mutant did not affect the level of Sirt1 protein in C2C12 cells. Moreover, downregulation of Sirt1 mRNA caused by miR-34a was counteracted by Sirt1 AS lncRNA in C2C12 cells.

lncRNA

  • Wang Y, Pang WJ, Wei N, Xiong Y, Wu WJ, Zhao CZ, Shen QW, Yang GS. (2014) Identification, stability and expression of Sirt1 antisense long non-coding RNA. Gene [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Incoming search terms:

  • sirt1 C2C12 differentiation