Search Results for: pca3 a lncrna biomarker

Long non-coding RNA metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 derived miniRNA as a novel plasma-based biomarker for diagnosing prostate cancer.

lncRNA

Examining plasma RNA is an emerging non-invasive diagnosis technique. However, whether tumour-derived long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in plasma can be used as a novel approach to detect human prostate cancer (PCa) has not yet been established.

The study was divided into three parts:

(1) the characteristics of PCa-related lncRNA fragments were systematically studied in the plasma or serum of 25 patients;

(2) the source of the circulating lncRNA fragments was explored in vitro and in vivo;

(3) the diagnostic performance of metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) derived (MD) miniRNA was validated in an independent cohort of 192 patients.

The expression levels of lncRNAs were measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MD-miniRNA copies were calculated using a standard curve in an area under the ROC curve (AUC)-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Genome-wide profiling revealed that MALAT-1 and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) are overexpressed in PCa tissues. Plasma lncRNAs probably exist in the form of fragments in a stable form. MD-miniRNA enters cell culture medium at measurable levels, and MD-miniRNA derived from human PCa xenografts actually enters the circulation in vivo and can be measured to distinguish xenografted mice from controls. In addition, plasma MD-miniRNA levels are significantly elevated in PCa patients compared to non-PCa patients (p<0.001). At a cut-off of 867.8 MD-miniRNA copies per microlitre of plasma, the sensitivity is 58.6%, 58.6% and 43.5% and the specificity is 84.8%, 84.8% and 81.6% for discriminating PCa from non-PCa, positive biopsy from negative biopsy and positive biopsy from negative biopsy, respectively. The researchers conclude that MD-miniRNA can be used as a novel plasma-based biomarker for PCa detection and can improve diagnostic accuracy by predicting prostate biopsy outcomes. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  • Ren S, Wang F, Shen J, Sun Y, Xu W, Lu J, Wei M, Xu C, Wu C, Zhang Z, Gao X, Liu Z, Hou J, Huang J, Sun Y. (2013) Long non-coding RNA metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 derived miniRNA as a novel plasma-based biomarker for diagnosing prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Long noncoding RNAs and prostate carcinogenesis: the missing ‘linc’?

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are rapidly becoming essential pieces in the cancer puzzle. Our understanding of their functional capabilities is in its infancy. One certain fact, however, is that their molecular interactions extend beyond chromatin complexes into diverse biological processes. In prostate cancer, aberrant expression of lncRNAs is associated with disease progression. Overexpression of oncogenic lncRNAs promotes tumor-cell proliferation and metastasis through chromatin looping and distal engagement with the androgen receptor, antisense gene regulation, alternative splicing, and impeding DNA repair. Several lncRNAs, such as prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1), and prostate cancer associated ncRNA transcript 1 (PCAT1), are highly prostate-specific, posing as attractive biomarkers.

lncRNA

  • Walsh AL, Tuzova AV, Bolton EM, Lynch TH, Perry AS. (2014) Long noncoding RNAs and prostate carcinogenesis: the missing ‘linc’? Trends Mol Med [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Incoming search terms:

  • long non coding RNA in carcinogenesis
  • PCGEM1 lncRNA

Long Noncoding RNA: “LNCs” to Cancer

lncRNA

In recent years we have witnessed a paradigm shift concerning the long-lasting controversy over “junk DNA” in the human genome. It is now well established that, besides the roughly 25 000 protein-coding genes, the genome contains tens of thousands of functional elements. In addition, the completion of the ENCODE project—the functional annotation of all regulatory regions of the human genome—has confirmed that 80% of genome is transcribed into RNA, whereas <than 2% is translated into proteins. Thus, an as yet unknown number of transcripts lacking significant coding potential, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), exceed the number of protein-coding genes . However, the expression, regulation, sequence, function, and mechanism of action of the vast majority of lncRNAs are currently largely unknown.

Incoming search terms:

  • xist
  • lncrna encode vs noncode
  • lncRNA xist
  • copy number pcat
  • lncrna interact
  • malat1 snp cancer
  • next-generation sequencing non-coding RNA