Search Results for: long noncoding rna expression
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of tissue physiology and disease processes including cancer. To delineate genome-wide lncRNA expression, researchers at the University of Michigan curated 7,256 RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) libraries from tumors, normal tissues and cell lines comprising over 43 Tb of sequence from 25 independent studies. They applied ab initio assembly methodology to this data set, yielding a consensus human transcriptome of 91,013 expressed genes.
Over 68% (58,648) of genes were classified as lncRNAs, of which 79% were previously unannotated. About 1% (597) of the lncRNAs harbored ultraconserved elements, and 7% (3,900) overlapped disease-associated SNPs. To prioritize lineage-specific, disease-associated lncRNA expression, the reseaechers employed non-parametric differential expression testing and nominated 7,942 lineage- or cancer-associated lncRNA genes. The lncRNA landscape characterized here may shed light on normal biology and cancer pathogenesis and may be valuable for future biomarker development.
Iyer MK, Niknafs YS, Malik R, Singhal U, Sahu A, Hosono Y, Barrette TR, Prensner JR, Evans JR, Zhao S, Poliakov A, Cao X, Dhanasekaran SM, Wu YM, Robinson DR, Beer DG, Feng FY, Iyer HK, Chinnaiyan AM. (2015) The landscape of long noncoding RNAs in the human transcriptome. Nat Genet [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
A new study led by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC – James) describes a novel marker that might help doctors choose the least toxic, most effective treatment for many older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML occurs mainly in older patients and has a three-year survival rate of 5 to 15 percent.
The researchers investigated patterns of molecules called long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of RNA molecules more than 200 nucleotide units long that are involved in regulating genes. The researchers examined the abundance, or expression, of lncRNAs in patients who were 60 years and older and who had cytogenetically normal (CN) AML.
The study is published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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- CE hypothesis
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) do not code for proteins but function as RNAs. Because the functions of an RNA rely on either its sequence or secondary structure, lncRNAs should be folded at least as strongly as messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which serve as messengers for translation and are generally thought to lack secondary structure-dependent RNA-level functions. Contrary to this prediction, analysis of genome-wide experimental data of human RNA folding reveals that lncRNAs are substantially less folded than mRNAs even after the control of expression level and GC%, although both lncRNAs and mRNAs are more strongly folded than expected by chance. In contrast to mRNAs, lncRNAs show neither the positive correlation between folding strength and expression level nor the negative correlation between folding strength and evolutionary rate. These and other results support that, while RNA folding undoubtedly plays a role in RNA biology, it is also important in translation and/or protein biology.
- Yang J, Zhang J. (2014) Human long noncoding RNAs are substantially less folded than messenger RNAs. Mol Biol Evol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
COLUMBUS, Ohio – A new study led by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC – James) describes a novel marker that might help doctors choose the least toxic, most effective treatment for many older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML occurs mainly in older patients and has a three-year survival rate of 5 to 15 percent.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely regarded as crucial regulators in various biological processes involved in carcinogenesis. However, the comprehensive lncRNA expression signature in colorectal cancer remains fully unknown. Researchers at Nanjing Medical University performed a high throughput microarray assay to detect lncRNA expression profile in three paired human colorectal cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues. Additional 90 paired colorectal samples were collected to verify differently expression levels of two selected lncRNAs using q-RT-PCR assay. Bioinformatic approaches were performed to explore into the functions of these differently expressed lncRNAs.
Microarray assay showed a series of lncRNAs were differently expressed in colorectal cancer. Two of the lncRNAs, HOTAIR and a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-422 were confirmed in more samples (P=0.015 for HOTAIR and P=0.027 for lncRNA-422, respectively). GSEA indicated that gene sets most correlated with them were those named up-regulated in KRAS-over, down-regulated in JAK2-knockout, down-regulated in PDGF-over and down-regulated in TBK1-knockout, all of which were cancer-related. Subsequently, GO analyses of most significantly correlated coding genes of HOTAIR and lncRNA-422 showed that these two lncRNAs may participate in carcinogenesis by regulating protein coding genes involved in special biological process relevant to cancer.
This study demonstrated that different lncRNA expression patterns were involved in colorectal cancer. Besides, HOTAIR and lncRNA-422 were identified to participate in colorectal cancer. Further studies into biological mechanisms of differently expressed lncRNAs identified in this study will help to provide new perspective in colorectal cancer pathogenesis.
- Xue Y, Ma G, Gu D, Zhu L, Hua Q, Du M, Chu H, Tong N, Chen J, Zhang Z, Wang M. (2014) Genome-wide analysis of long noncoding RNA signature in human colorectal cancer. Gene [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
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