Search Results for: long non coding rna review

Review – Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Non-coding RNA

graphical_abstract

Eukaryotic cells transcribe a vast number of noncoding RNA species. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, examples of posttranscriptional gene regulation by lncRNAs are emerging. For example, through extended base-pairing, lncRNAs can stabilize or promote the translation of target mRNAs, while partial base-pairing facilitates mRNA decay or inhibits target mRNA translation. In the absence of complementarity, lncRNAs can suppress precursor mRNA splicing and translation by acting as decoys of RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs and can compete for microRNA-mediated inhibition leading to increased expression of the mRNA. Through these regulatory mechanisms, lncRNAs can elicit differentiation, proliferation, and cytoprotective programs, underscoring the rising recognition of lncRNA roles in human disease.

  • Yoon JH, Abdelmohsen K, Gorospe M. (2012) Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Noncoding RNA.  J Mol Biol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Incoming search terms:

  • lncrna review
  • lncrna splicing

Post-doc position available – structural aspect of lncRNA-protein complexes

lncRNA

Location:             Grenoble, France
Staff Category:       Postdoctoral Fellow
Contract Duration:   2 years
Reference Number:     GR_00072
Closing Date:         4 January 2015

Job Description

The European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) is one of the highest ranked scientific research organisations in the world. The Headquarters Laboratory is located in Heidelberg (Germany), with additional sites in Grenoble (France), Hamburg (Germany), Hinxton (UK) and Monterotondo (Italy).

EMBL is seeking to recruit a postdoctoral researcher to join the group of Marco Marcia at EMBL Grenoble. EMBL is a leading international research organization with a collaborative atmosphere. We are seeking to recruit an outstanding candidate with a strong interest in applying structural biology approaches to important biological problems. We focus on ribonucleoproteins formed by long non-coding RNAs and involved in transcription regulation.

Qualifications and Experience

The successful applicant should hold a Ph.D. and have a solid background in biochemical analysis of protein and/or RNA complexes. Experience in single particle cryo-electron microscopy and/or X-ray crystallography would be an advantage. The laboratory has excellent access to state-of-the-art equipment including the ESRF synchrotron and a Tecnai

F20 Polara equipped with K2 direct electron detector. We welcome applications from candidates that are interested in working at the interface of cryoEM and X-ray crystallography. Motivation to work in a multidisciplinary and international environment is fundamental to this position.

Application Instructions

Please apply online through www.embl.org/jobs

Additional Information

EMBL is an inclusive, equal opportunity employer offering attractive conditions and benefits appropriate to an international research organisation. Please note that appointments on fixed term contracts can be renewed, depending on circumstances at the time of the review.

A pathophysiological view of the long non-coding RNA world

Because cells are constantly exposed to micro-environmental changes, they require the ability to adapt to maintain a dynamic equilibrium. Proteins are considered critical for the regulation of gene expression, which is a fundamental process in determining the cellular responses to stimuli. Recently, revolutionary findings in RNA research and the advent of high-throughput genomic technologies have revealed a pervasive transcription of the human genome, which generates many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) whose roles are largely undefined. However, there is evidence that lncRNAs are involved in several cellular physiological processes such as adaptation to stresses, cell differentiation, maintenance of pluripotency and apoptosis. The correct balance of lncRNA levels is crucial for the maintenance of cellular equilibrium, and the dysregulation of lncRNA expression is linked to many disorders; certain transcripts are useful prognostic markers for some of these pathologies. This review revisits the classic concept of cellular homeostasis from the perspective of lncRNAs specifically to understand how this novel class of molecules contributes to cellular balance and how its dysregulated expression can lead to the onset of pathologies such as cancer.

lncRNA

  • Di Gesualdo F, Capaccioli S, Lulli M. (2014) A pathophysiological view of the long non-coding RNA world. Oncotarget [Epub ahead of print]. [article]

LncRNA2Target – a database for differentially expressed genes after lncRNA knockdown or overexpression

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been emerged as critical regulators of gene expression at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, yet what genes are regulated by lncRNAs remains to be characterized. To assess the effects of a specific lncRNA on gene expression, increasing researchers profiled the genome-wide or individual gene expression level changes after knocking down or overexpressing the lncRNA. However, no online repository is currently available to collect these differentially expressed genes regulated by lncRNAs.

To make it convenient for researchers to know what genes are regulated by a lncRNA or which lncRNAs regulate a given gene of interest, researchers at the Harbin Institute of Technology have developed LncRNA2Target: a comprehensive resource of differentially expressed genes after lncRNA knockdown or overexpression.

lncRNA

In this database system, target genes of a lncRNA are defined as the differentially expressed genes after knocking down or overexpressing the lncRNA. By reviewing all published lncRNA papers, we manually curated the differentially expressed target genes confirmed by qRT-PCR or western blot, and identified all the differential target genes from the microarray or RNA-seq data.

Availability – the LncRNA2Target database is available at: http://www.lncrna2target.org/

The functional role of long non-coding RNAs and epigenetics

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. The post-transcriptional regulation is influenced by these lncRNAs by interfering with the microRNA pathways, involving in diverse cellular processes. The regulation of gene expression by lncRNAs at the epigenetic level, transcriptional and post-transcriptional level have been well known and widely studied. Recent recognition that lncRNAs make effects in many biological and pathological processes such as stem cell pluripotency, neurogenesis, oncogenesis and etc. This review focuses on the functional roles of lncRNAs in epigenetics and related research progress are summarized.

lncRNA

  • Cao J. (2014) The functional role of long non-coding RNAs and epigenetics. Biol Proced Online 16:11. [article]