Search Results for: long non coding rna review

Review – Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Non-coding RNA

graphical_abstract

Eukaryotic cells transcribe a vast number of noncoding RNA species. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, examples of posttranscriptional gene regulation by lncRNAs are emerging. For example, through extended base-pairing, lncRNAs can stabilize or promote the translation of target mRNAs, while partial base-pairing facilitates mRNA decay or inhibits target mRNA translation. In the absence of complementarity, lncRNAs can suppress precursor mRNA splicing and translation by acting as decoys of RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs and can compete for microRNA-mediated inhibition leading to increased expression of the mRNA. Through these regulatory mechanisms, lncRNAs can elicit differentiation, proliferation, and cytoprotective programs, underscoring the rising recognition of lncRNA roles in human disease.

  • Yoon JH, Abdelmohsen K, Gorospe M. (2012) Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Noncoding RNA.  J Mol Biol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

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Regulation of metabolism by long, non-coding RNAs

Our understanding of genomic regulation was revolutionized by the discovery that the genome is pervasively transcribed, giving rise to thousands of mostly uncharacterized non-coding ribonucleic acids (ncRNAs). Long, ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have thus emerged as a novel class of functional RNAs that impinge on gene regulation by a broad spectrum of mechanisms such as the recruitment of epigenetic modifier proteins, control of mRNA decay and DNA sequestration of transcription factors. The authors review those lncRNAs that are implicated in differentiation and homeostasis of metabolic tissues and present novel concepts on how lncRNAs might act on energy and glucose homeostasis. Finally, the control of circadian rhythm by lncRNAs is an emerging principles of lncRNA-mediated gene regulation.
lncRNA

  • Kornfeld JW, Brüning JC. (2014) Regulation of metabolism by long, non-coding RNAs. Frontiers in Genetics [Epub ahead of print]. [article]

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Research Topic – Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders

lncRNA

Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders

Topic Editors:
Yingqun Huang, Yale University School of Medicine, American Samoa
Romano Regazzi, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
William Cho, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong

Review Article, Published on 04 Mar 2014
Molecular mechanisms of long ncRNAs in neurological disorders
Dubravka Vučićević, Heinrich Schrewe and Ulf Andersson Ørom
doi: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00048

Original Research Article
Asymmetric localization of natural antisense RNA of neuropeptide sensorin in Aplysia sensory neurons during aging and activity
Beena Kadakkuzha, Xin-An Liu, Maria Narvaez, Alexandra Kaye, Komolitdin Akhmedov and Sathyanarayanan Puthanveettil
doi: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00084

Review Article, Published on 25 Mar 2014
Regulation of metabolism by long, non-coding RNAs
Jan-Wilhelm Kornfeld and Jens Claus Brüning
doi: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00057

Opinion Article, Published on 04 Mar 2014
Long non-coding RNAs learn the importance of being in vivo
Jhumku Dutt Kohtz
doi: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00045

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Postdoctoral Position: The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in beta-cell health

long non-coding rna

Introduction

At AstraZeneca we are seeking talented scientists who are interested in pursuing an academic-style Postdoc in a global pharmaceutical setting and contributing to AstraZeneca’s commitment to delivering innovative medicines. This newly expanded internal pharmaceutical Postdoctoral research program spans multiple therapeutic areas and a wide range of scientific disciplines.
Your comprehensive training program includes a focus on drug discovery and development, as well as exposure to existing local and global Postdoctoral Research communities within AstraZeneca. Postdoctoral scientists will have the opportunity to conduct independent cutting-edge work in state-of-the-art laboratories while teaming with other AstraZeneca scientists.
Each Postdoctoral scientist will also be able to collaborate with a leading academic advisor who will provide further support and guidance. Additionally, the Postdoc will be encouraged to attend and present at international scientific conferences and publish high-profile papers.

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Non-coding RNA interact to regulate neuronal development and function

The human brain is one of the most complex biological systems, and the cognitive abilities have greatly expanded compared to invertebrates without much expansion in the number of protein coding genes. This suggests that gene regulation plays a very important role in the development and function of nervous system, by acting at multiple levels such as transcription and translation. In this article the authors discuss the regulatory roles of three classes of non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs)-microRNAs (miRNAs), piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs) and long-non-coding RNA (lncRNA), in the process of neurogenesis and nervous function including control of synaptic plasticity and potential roles in neurodegenerative diseases.

miRNAs are involved in diverse processes including neurogenesis where they channelize the cellular physiology toward neuronal differentiation. miRNAs can also indirectly influence neurogenesis by regulating the proliferation and self renewal of neural stem cells and are dysregulated in several neurodegenerative diseases. miRNAs are also known to regulate synaptic plasticity and are usually found to be co-expressed with their targets. The dynamics of gene regulation is thus dependent on the local architecture of the gene regulatory network (GRN) around the miRNA and its targets. piRNAs had been classically known to regulate transposons in the germ cells. However, piRNAs have been, recently, found to be expressed in the brain and possibly function by imparting epigenetic changes by DNA methylation. piRNAs are known to be maternally inherited and we assume that they may play a role in early development. The authors also explore the possible function of piRNAs in regulating the expansion of transposons in the brain. Brain is known to express several lncRNA but functional roles in brain development are attributed to a few lncRNA while functions of most of the them remain unknown. They review the roles of some known lncRNA and explore the other possible functions of lncRNAs including their interaction with miRNAs.

lncRNA

  • Iyengar BR, Choudhary A, Sarangdhar MA, Venkatesh KV, Gadgil CJ, Pillai B. (2014) Non-coding RNA interact to regulate neuronal development and function. Front Cell Neurosci 8:47. [article]

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