Search Results for: long non coding rna review

Review – Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Non-coding RNA

graphical_abstract

Eukaryotic cells transcribe a vast number of noncoding RNA species. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, examples of posttranscriptional gene regulation by lncRNAs are emerging. For example, through extended base-pairing, lncRNAs can stabilize or promote the translation of target mRNAs, while partial base-pairing facilitates mRNA decay or inhibits target mRNA translation. In the absence of complementarity, lncRNAs can suppress precursor mRNA splicing and translation by acting as decoys of RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs and can compete for microRNA-mediated inhibition leading to increased expression of the mRNA. Through these regulatory mechanisms, lncRNAs can elicit differentiation, proliferation, and cytoprotective programs, underscoring the rising recognition of lncRNA roles in human disease.

  • Yoon JH, Abdelmohsen K, Gorospe M. (2012) Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Noncoding RNA.  J Mol Biol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

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Long non-coding RNAs in cancer: implications for personalized therapy

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, pseudogenes and circRNAs) have recently come into light as powerful players in cancer pathogenesis and it is becoming increasingly clear that they have the potential of greatly contributing to the spread and success of personalized cancer medicine. In this concise review, the authors briefly introduce these three classes of long non-coding RNAs. We then discuss their applications as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Finally, we describe their appeal as targets and as drugs, while pointing out the limitations that still lie ahead of their definitive entry into clinical practice.

lncRNA

  • Vitiello M, Tuccoli A, Poliseno L. (2014) Long non-coding RNAs in cancer: implications for personalized therapy. Cell Oncol (Dordr). [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

LncRNA: A link between RNA and cancer

Unraveling the gene expression networks governing cancer initiation and development is essential while remains largely uncompleted. With the innovations in RNA-seq technologies and computational biology, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being identified and characterized at a rapid pace. Recent findings reveal that lncRNAs are implicated in serial steps of cancer development. These lncRNAs interact with DNA, RNA, protein molecules and/or their combinations, acting as an essential regulator in chromatin organization, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Their misexpression confers the cancer cell capacities for tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. The review here will emphasize their aberrant expression and function in cancer, and the roles in cancer diagnosis and therapy will be also discussed.

lncRNA

  • Yanga G, Lub X, Yuanc L. (2014) LncRNA: A link between RNA and cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Gene Regulatory Mechanisms [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

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  • lncrna p53 interaction
  • lncRNA-DNA

Non-Coding RNA and Evolution of Complexity

lncRNA

Non-coding DNA in genomes increases in concert with the increase in developmental complexity in evolution, and is consonant with the important regulatory roles identified for the many classes of non-coding RNAs transcribed from more than 85 % of the DNA regarded as ‘junk’ not so long ago Dr Mae-Wan Ho

A vast RNA underworld exposed

It wasn’t so long ago that most people still believed DNA carries the instructions for making an organism, while RNA simply copies out (transcribes) the instructions (by complementary base pairing) that are then translated into protein via a genetic code, in which different triplets of bases (codons) specify one of twenty amino acids plus start and stop signals. The proteins are the real workhorses in this hierarchy, with the DNA akin to the Holy Scripture – ‘Book of Life’ the Central Dogma – faithfully copied and transmitted by scribes (RNA), to be interpreted and implemented by the faithful (proteins).

But soon after the human genome sequence was announced, it became clear that RNA plays a much more substantive, central role than previously thought.

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Long non-coding RNAs in cancer invasion and metastasis

Recent large-scale transcriptome analyses have revealed that the human genome contains more than just protein-coding genes. Indeed, a large number of transcripts, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), lack protein-coding capacity, and increasing evidence suggests that lncRNAs could have a critical role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, such as stem cell pluripotency, development, cell growth and apoptosis, and cancer invasion and/or metastasis. Furthermore, the aberrant expression of several lncRNAs is closely linked to cancer invasion and/or metastasis. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs regulate cancer invasion and/or metastasis are not clearly understood, recent studies have revealed that aberrant lncRNAs expression affects the progression of cancer. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding the roles of lncRNAs in cancer invasion and/or metastasis.

lncRNA

  • Shen XH, Qi P, Du X. (2014) Long non-coding RNAs in cancer invasion and metastasis. Mod Pathol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

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  • apoptosis postdoctoral position 2014 august