Search Results for: long non coding rna review

Review – Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Non-coding RNA

graphical_abstract

Eukaryotic cells transcribe a vast number of noncoding RNA species. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, examples of posttranscriptional gene regulation by lncRNAs are emerging. For example, through extended base-pairing, lncRNAs can stabilize or promote the translation of target mRNAs, while partial base-pairing facilitates mRNA decay or inhibits target mRNA translation. In the absence of complementarity, lncRNAs can suppress precursor mRNA splicing and translation by acting as decoys of RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs and can compete for microRNA-mediated inhibition leading to increased expression of the mRNA. Through these regulatory mechanisms, lncRNAs can elicit differentiation, proliferation, and cytoprotective programs, underscoring the rising recognition of lncRNA roles in human disease.

  • Yoon JH, Abdelmohsen K, Gorospe M. (2012) Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Noncoding RNA.  J Mol Biol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Incoming search terms:

  • lncrna review
  • lncrna splicing
  • ncRNAs cis trans
  • transcription regulation eukaryotes
  • Long non-coding RNA gene
  • microrna review 2014

LncRNA: A link between RNA and cancer

Unraveling the gene expression networks governing cancer initiation and development is essential while remains largely uncompleted. With the innovations in RNA-seq technologies and computational biology, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being identified and characterized at a rapid pace. Recent findings reveal that lncRNAs are implicated in serial steps of cancer development. These lncRNAs interact with DNA, RNA, protein molecules and/or their combinations, acting as an essential regulator in chromatin organization, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Their misexpression confers the cancer cell capacities for tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. The review here will emphasize their aberrant expression and function in cancer, and the roles in cancer diagnosis and therapy will be also discussed.

lncRNA

  • Yanga G, Lub X, Yuanc L. (2014) LncRNA: A link between RNA and cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Gene Regulatory Mechanisms [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Non-Coding RNA and Evolution of Complexity

lncRNA

Non-coding DNA in genomes increases in concert with the increase in developmental complexity in evolution, and is consonant with the important regulatory roles identified for the many classes of non-coding RNAs transcribed from more than 85 % of the DNA regarded as ‘junk’ not so long ago Dr Mae-Wan Ho

A vast RNA underworld exposed

It wasn’t so long ago that most people still believed DNA carries the instructions for making an organism, while RNA simply copies out (transcribes) the instructions (by complementary base pairing) that are then translated into protein via a genetic code, in which different triplets of bases (codons) specify one of twenty amino acids plus start and stop signals. The proteins are the real workhorses in this hierarchy, with the DNA akin to the Holy Scripture – ‘Book of Life’ the Central Dogma – faithfully copied and transmitted by scribes (RNA), to be interpreted and implemented by the faithful (proteins).

But soon after the human genome sequence was announced, it became clear that RNA plays a much more substantive, central role than previously thought.

Incoming search terms:

  • how much human noncoding dna
  • is rna heridtry material in humans
  • miRNA intergenic

Long non-coding RNAs in cancer invasion and metastasis

Recent large-scale transcriptome analyses have revealed that the human genome contains more than just protein-coding genes. Indeed, a large number of transcripts, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), lack protein-coding capacity, and increasing evidence suggests that lncRNAs could have a critical role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, such as stem cell pluripotency, development, cell growth and apoptosis, and cancer invasion and/or metastasis. Furthermore, the aberrant expression of several lncRNAs is closely linked to cancer invasion and/or metastasis. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs regulate cancer invasion and/or metastasis are not clearly understood, recent studies have revealed that aberrant lncRNAs expression affects the progression of cancer. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding the roles of lncRNAs in cancer invasion and/or metastasis.

lncRNA

  • Shen XH, Qi P, Du X. (2014) Long non-coding RNAs in cancer invasion and metastasis. Mod Pathol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

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  • apoptosis postdoctoral position 2014 august

Long Noncoding RNAs in Imprinting and X Chromosome Inactivation

The field of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) research has been rapidly advancing in recent years. Technological advancements and deep-sequencing of the transcriptome have facilitated the identification of numerous new lncRNAs, many with unusual properties, however, the function of most of these molecules is still largely unknown. Some evidence suggests that several of these lncRNAs may regulate their own transcription in cis, and that of nearby genes, by recruiting remodeling factors to local chromatin. Notably, lncRNAs are known to exist at many imprinted gene clusters. Genomic imprinting is a complex and highly regulated process resulting in the monoallelic silencing of certain genes, based on the parent-of-origin of the allele. It is thought that lncRNAs may regulate many imprinted loci, however, the mechanism by which they exert such influence is poorly understood. This review will discuss what is known about the lncRNAs of major imprinted loci, and the roles they play in the regulation of imprinting.

lncRNA

  • Autuoro JM, Pirnie SP, Carmichael GG. (2014) Long Noncoding RNAs in Imprinting and X Chromosome Inactivation. Biomolecules 4(1):76-100. [article]

Incoming search terms:

  • xact x inactivation
  • mechanism of action of non coding RNAs in health
  • noncoding region of X chromosome
  • [x chromosome inactivation in human: xact and xist a non coding rna for each x]