Search Results for: long non coding rna review
Eukaryotic cells transcribe a vast number of noncoding RNA species. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, examples of posttranscriptional gene regulation by lncRNAs are emerging. For example, through extended base-pairing, lncRNAs can stabilize or promote the translation of target mRNAs, while partial base-pairing facilitates mRNA decay or inhibits target mRNA translation. In the absence of complementarity, lncRNAs can suppress precursor mRNA splicing and translation by acting as decoys of RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs and can compete for microRNA-mediated inhibition leading to increased expression of the mRNA. Through these regulatory mechanisms, lncRNAs can elicit differentiation, proliferation, and cytoprotective programs, underscoring the rising recognition of lncRNA roles in human disease.
- Yoon JH, Abdelmohsen K, Gorospe M. (2012) Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation by Long Noncoding RNA. J Mol Biol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
Incoming search terms:
- lncrna review
- lncrna splicing
The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their large number and biological significance. Many lncRNAs have been identified as mapping to regulatory elements including gene promoters and enhancers, ultraconserved regions and intergenic regions of protein-coding genes. Yet, the biological function and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA in human diseases in general and cancer in particular remain largely unknown. Data from the literature suggest that lncRNA, often via interaction with proteins, functions in specific genomic loci or use their own transcription loci for regulatory activity.
In this review, the authors summarize recent findings supporting the importance of DNA loci in lncRNA function and the underlying molecular mechanisms via cis or trans regulation, and discuss their implications in cancer. In addition, they use the 8q24 genomic locus, a region containing interactive SNPs, DNA regulatory elements and lncRNAs, as an example to illustrate how single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within lncRNAs may be functionally associated with the individual’s susceptibility to cancer.
- Ling H, Vincent K, Pichler M, Fodde R, Berindan-Neagoe I, Slack FJ, Calin GA. (2015) Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics. Oncogene [Epub ahead of print].[abstract]
Incoming search terms:
- non-example of gene
In recent years, increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play important roles in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions. Besides small noncoding RNAs (eg, microRNAs), >200-nucleotide long transcripts, namely long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), can interfere with gene expressions and signaling pathways at various stages. In the cardiovascular system, studies have detected and characterized the expression of lncRNAs under normal physiological condition and in disease states. Several lncRNAs are regulated during acute myocardial infarction (eg, Novlnc6) and heart failure (eg, Mhrt), whereas others control hypertrophy, mitochondrial function and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. In the vascular system, the endothelial-expressed lncRNAs (eg, MALAT1 and Tie-1-AS) can regulate vessel growth and function, whereas the smooth-muscle-expressed lncRNA smooth muscle and endothelial cell-enriched migration/differentiation-associated long noncoding RNA was recently shown to control the contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells.
This review article summarizes the data on lncRNA expressions in mouse and human and highlights identified cardiovascular lncRNAs that might play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Although our understanding of lncRNAs is still in its infancy, these examples may provide helpful insights how lncRNAs interfere with cardiovascular diseases.
- Uchida S, Dimmeler S. (2015) Long Noncoding RNAs in Cardiovascular Diseases. Circ Res 116(4):737-750. [article]
It is a great surprise that the genomes of mammals and other eukaryotes harbor many thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although these long noncoding transcripts were once considered to be simply transcriptional noise or cloning artifacts, multiple studies have suggested that lncRNAs are emerging as new players in diverse human diseases, especially in cancer, and that the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs need to be elucidated.
More recently, evidence has begun to accumulate describing the complex post-transcriptional regulation in which lncRNAs are involved. It was reported that lncRNAs can be implicated in degradation, translation, pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, and protein activities and even as microRNAs (miRNAs) sponges in both a sequence-dependent and sequence-independent manner. In this review, the authors present an updated vision of lncRNAs and summarize the mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation by lncRNAs, providing new insight into the functional cellular roles that they may play in human diseases, with a particular focus on cancers.
- Shi X, Sun M, Wu Y, Yao Y, Liu H, Wu G, Yuan D, Song Y. (2015) Post-transcriptional regulation of long noncoding RNAs in cancer. Tumour Biol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
Location: Grenoble, France
Staff Category: Postdoctoral Fellow
Contract Duration: 2 years
Reference Number: GR_00072
Closing Date: 4 January 2015
The European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) is one of the highest ranked scientific research organisations in the world. The Headquarters Laboratory is located in Heidelberg (Germany), with additional sites in Grenoble (France), Hamburg (Germany), Hinxton (UK) and Monterotondo (Italy).
EMBL is seeking to recruit a postdoctoral researcher to join the group of Marco Marcia at EMBL Grenoble. EMBL is a leading international research organization with a collaborative atmosphere. We are seeking to recruit an outstanding candidate with a strong interest in applying structural biology approaches to important biological problems. We focus on ribonucleoproteins formed by long non-coding RNAs and involved in transcription regulation.
Qualifications and Experience
The successful applicant should hold a Ph.D. and have a solid background in biochemical analysis of protein and/or RNA complexes. Experience in single particle cryo-electron microscopy and/or X-ray crystallography would be an advantage. The laboratory has excellent access to state-of-the-art equipment including the ESRF synchrotron and a Tecnai
F20 Polara equipped with K2 direct electron detector. We welcome applications from candidates that are interested in working at the interface of cryoEM and X-ray crystallography. Motivation to work in a multidisciplinary and international environment is fundamental to this position.
Please apply online through www.embl.org/jobs
EMBL is an inclusive, equal opportunity employer offering attractive conditions and benefits appropriate to an international research organisation. Please note that appointments on fixed term contracts can be renewed, depending on circumstances at the time of the review.
Incoming search terms:
- nc RNA regulation
- uc lncrna