Search Results for: incrna
Expression and regulation of intergenic long noncoding RNAs during T cell development and differentiation
Although intergenic long noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been linked to gene regulation in various tissues, little is known about lincRNA transcriptomes in the T cell lineages. Here researchers at the National Institutes of Health identified 1,524 lincRNA clusters in 42 T cell samples, from early T cell progenitors to terminally differentiated helper T cell subsets. Their analysis revealed highly dynamic and cell-specific expression patterns for lincRNAs during T cell differentiation. These lincRNAs were located in genomic regions enriched for genes that encode proteins with immunoregulatory functions. Many were bound and regulated by the key transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, STAT4 and STAT6. They found that the lincRNA LincR-Ccr2-5’AS, together with GATA-3, was an essential component of a regulatory circuit in gene expression specific to the TH2 subset of helper T cells and was important for the migration of TH2 cells.
- Hu G, Tang Q, Sharma S, Yu F, Escobar TM, Muljo SA, Zhu J, Zhao K. (2013) Expression and regulation of intergenic long noncoding RNAs during T cell development and differentiation. Nat Immunol [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been shown to be novel regulators for both transcription and posttranscriptional/translation. One of them, lincRNA-p21, was regulated by p53 and contributed to apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. However, the impact of such regulation on colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be determined.
Now, researchers at the Stony Brook University have discovered that the expression level of lincRNA-p21 is increased by elevated wild-type p53 induced by nutlin-3 in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The expression level of lincRNA-p21 was significantly (P = .0208) lower in CRC tumor tissue when compared with the paired normal tissue from the same patient. There was no significant correlation of lincRNA-p21 with p53 status (wild-type vs. mutant). Tumors in the rectum showed a higher level of lincRNA-p21 than tumors in the colon. In addition, lincRNA-p21 in patients with stage III tumors was significantly higher than in those with stage I tumors. Elevated levels of lincRNA-p21 were significantly associated with higher pT and vascular invasion.
These results indicate that lincRNA-p21 may contribute to CRC disease progression.
- Zhai H, Fesler A, Schee K, Fodstad O, Flatmark K, Ju J. (2013) Clinical Significance of Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA-p21 in Colorectal Cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
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An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is central to antimicrobial defenses. Signal-dependent activation of transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, and chromatin modifying factors collaborate to control this response. Here, researchers from the University of Massachusetts Medical School identify a long noncoding RNA that acts as a key regulator of this inflammatory response. Pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors induce the expression of numerous lncRNAs. One of these, lincRNA-Cox2 mediates both the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes. Transcriptional repression of target genes is dependent on interactions of lincRNA-Cox2 with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B and A2/B1. Collectively, these studies unveil a central role of lincRNA-Cox2 as a broad acting regulatory component of the circuit that controls the inflammatory response.
- Carpenter S, Atianand M, Aiello D, Ricci EP, Gandhi P, Hall LL, Byron M, Monks B, Henry-Bezy M, Lawrence JB, O’Neill LA, Moore MJ, Caffrey DR, Fitzgerald KA. (2013) A Long Noncoding RNA Mediates Both Activation and Repression of Immune Response Genes. Science [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
Incoming search terms:
- A Long Noncoding RNA Mediates Both Activation and Repression of Immune Response Genes
Large noncoding RNAs are emerging as an important component in cellular regulation. Considerable evidence indicates that these transcripts act directly as functional RNAs rather than through an encoded protein product. However, a recent study of ribosome occupancy reported that many large intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs) are bound by ribosomes, raising the possibility that they are translated into proteins.
Here, researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard show that classical noncoding RNAs and 5′ UTRs show the same ribosome occupancy as lincRNAs, demonstrating that ribosome occupancy alone is not sufficient to classify transcripts as coding or noncoding. Instead, they define a metric based on the known property of translation whereby translating ribosomes are released upon encountering a bona fide stop codon. They show that this metric accurately discriminates between protein-coding transcripts and all classes of known noncoding transcripts, including lincRNAs. Taken together, these results argue that the large majority of lincRNAs do not function through encoded proteins.
- Guttman M, Russell P, Ingolia NT, Weissman JS, Lander ES. (2013) Ribosome Profiling Provides Evidence that Large Noncoding RNAs Do Not Encode Proteins. Cell 154(1), 240-51. [abstract]
Incoming search terms:
- encode lincRNA database
H3ABioNet – Pan African Bioinformatics Network for H3Africa
These one day courses are designed for scientists and clinicians with little or no experience in next generation sequencing. The courses aim to provide the experimental and bioinformatics skills required to prepare samples, quantify the levels of mRNA/long-non-coding RNA (RNAseq) or exon/DNA (DNAseq) expresion. We assume that sequencing will be performed by an external provider and will provide advice in this area. The courses are computer based and will involve a combination of presentations/exercises to analysis ‘actual’ next generation sequencing data using publically (free) available programmes.
- Overview on mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs
- Introduction to RNA databases (Ensembl, RefSeq, GenBank and human lincRNA catalogue)
- RNA isolation techniques and quality assessment
- Overview of next generation sequencing platforms (ABI Solid, Illumina Solexa, Life Technologies Ion Torrent)
- Introduction to data file formats (FASTA, FASTQ, SAM, BAM, GTF and BED files)
- Mapping of RNA data onto a reference genome using Tophat
- Quantification of known RNA species using CuffDiff
- Identification and quantification of novel RNA transcripts using CuffLinks
- Visualisation and analysis of sequencing data using the IGV genome browsers
- Functional annotation using DAVID pathway analysis
Course Trainers: Dr Nick Ilott (University of Oxford) and Prof Mark Lindsay (University of Bath)
Dates and location:
Tuesday 9th July 2013 – IMG Training Rooms, Near Liverpool Street Station, London
Incoming search terms:
- lncrna isolation