Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are rapidly becoming essential pieces in the cancer puzzle. Our understanding of their functional capabilities is in its infancy. One certain fact, however, is that their molecular interactions extend beyond chromatin complexes into diverse biological processes. In prostate cancer, aberrant expression of lncRNAs is associated with disease progression. Overexpression of oncogenic lncRNAs promotes tumor-cell proliferation and metastasis through chromatin looping and distal engagement with the androgen receptor, antisense gene regulation, alternative splicing, and impeding DNA repair. Several lncRNAs, such as prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1), and prostate cancer associated ncRNA transcript 1 (PCAT1), are highly prostate-specific, posing as attractive biomarkers.
- Walsh AL, Tuzova AV, Bolton EM, Lynch TH, Perry AS. (2014) Long noncoding RNAs and prostate carcinogenesis: the missing ‘linc’? Trends Mol Med [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]