Review Paper

Biogenesis and Transcriptional Regulation of Long Noncoding RNAs in the Human Immune System

lncRNA

The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA makes RNA makes protein. Discoveries over the last quarter of a century found that the process of DNA transcription into RNA gives rise to a diverse array of functional RNA species, including genes that code for protein and noncoding RNAs. For decades, the focus has been on understanding how protein-coding genes ...

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SINEUP lncRNAs represent a new versatile tool to improve the production of secreted proteins in biomanufacturing processes

lncRNA

Mammalian cells are an indispensable tool for the production of recombinant proteins in contexts where function depends on post-translational modifications. Among them, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the primary factories for the production of therapeutic proteins, including monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To improve expression and stability, several methodologies have been adopted, including methods based on media formulation, selective pressure and ...

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Long non-coding RNAs – spatial amplifiers that control nuclear structure and gene expression

xist

Over the past decade, it has become clear that mammalian genomes encode thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), many of which are now implicated in diverse biological processes. Recent work studying the molecular mechanisms of several key examples – including Xist, which orchestrates X chromosome inactivation – has provided new insights into how lncRNAs can control cellular functions by acting ...

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The emerging role of long non-coding RNAs in endometrial cancer

lncRNA

The human genome is pervasively transcribed and approximately 98% of the genome is non-coding. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a heterogeneous group of RNA transcripts that are >200 nucleotides in length with minimal to no protein-coding potential. Similar to proteins, lncRNAs have important biological functions in both normal cells and disease states including many types of cancer. This review summarizes ...

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The functions of long noncoding RNAs in development and stem cells

lncRNA

Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed, with tens of thousands of RNAs emanating from uni- and bi-directional promoters and from active enhancers. In vertebrates, thousands of loci in each species produce a class of transcripts called long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are typically expressed at low levels and do not appear to give rise to functional proteins. Substantial numbers of lncRNAs ...

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Metastasis-associated long noncoding RNAs in gastrointestinal cancer: Implications for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a newly discovered class of ncRNA molecules, have been widely accepted as crucial regulators of various diseases including cancer. Increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are involved in diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as cell cycle progression, chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, and posttranscriptional processing. Aberrant expression of lncRNAs frequently occurs in gastrointestinal cancer ...

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RNA-DNA Triplex Formation by Long Noncoding RNAs

lncRNA

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of biological processes through various mechanisms that are not fully understood. Proposed mechanisms include regulation based on RNA-protein interactions, as well as RNA-RNA interactions and RNA-DNA interactions. Here, researchers from Kyoto University focus on one possible mechanism that lncRNA might be using to impact biological function, the RNA-DNA triplex ...

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Dysregulation of long non-coding RNA in breast cancer

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which occupy nearly 98% of genome, have crucial roles in cancer development, including breast cancer. Breast cancer is a disease with high incidence. Despite of recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms and combined therapy strategies, the functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs in breast cancer remains unclear. Researchers from Zhejiang University review the currently basic knowledge ...

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Long non-coding RNAs in the regulation of myeloid cells

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been attracting immense research interests. The relevance of lncRNAs in biological and physiological as well as in pathological processes has increased along with the understanding of their various regulatory mechanisms. Abundant studies have indicated that lncRNAs are involved in the differentiation, proliferation, activation, and initiation of apoptosis in different cell types. However, most studies about ...

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Long noncoding RNAs in the progression, metastasis, and prognosis of osteosarcoma

lncRNA

lncRNAs are a large and diverse class of non-protein-coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides.lncRNAs have recently gained widespread attention and have been shown to have crucial roles in various biological regulatory processes. lncRNA sequences are conserved, and lncRNA expression profiles in adult tissues are broad. lncRNA messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are generally less abundant than protein-coding mRNAs but exhibit stronger tissue- ...

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