Long noncoding RNAs – A Novel Prognostic Marker In AML

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New Angelman syndrome therapy proposed

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The long non-coding RNA NBAT-1 is a prognostic biomarker in neuroblastoma

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Long non-coding RNAs in cancer: implications for personalized therapy

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, pseudogenes and circRNAs) have recently come into light as powerful players in cancer pathogenesis and it More »

Parts of genome without a known function may play a key role in the birth of new proteins

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Review Paper

A pathophysiological view of the long non-coding RNA world

Because cells are constantly exposed to micro-environmental changes, they require the ability to adapt to maintain a dynamic equilibrium. Proteins are considered critical for the regulation of gene expression, which is a fundamental process in determining the cellular responses to stimuli. Recently, revolutionary findings in RNA research and the advent of high-throughput genomic technologies have revealed a pervasive transcription of the human genome, which generates many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) whose roles are largely undefined. However, there is evidence that lncRNAs are involved in several cellular physiological processes such as adaptation to stresses, cell differentiation, maintenance of pluripotency and apoptosis. The correct balance of lncRNA levels is crucial for the maintenance of cellular equilibrium, and the dysregulation of lncRNA expression is linked to many disorders; certain transcripts are useful prognostic markers for some of these pathologies. This review revisits the classic concept of cellular homeostasis from the perspective of lncRNAs specifically to understand how this novel class of molecules contributes to cellular balance and how its dysregulated expression can lead to the onset of pathologies such as cancer.

lncRNA

  • Di Gesualdo F, Capaccioli S, Lulli M. (2014) A pathophysiological view of the long non-coding RNA world. Oncotarget [Epub ahead of print]. [article]

The functional role of long non-coding RNAs and epigenetics

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. The post-transcriptional regulation is influenced by these lncRNAs by interfering with the microRNA pathways, involving in diverse cellular processes. The regulation of gene expression by lncRNAs at the epigenetic level, transcriptional and post-transcriptional level have been well known and widely studied. Recent recognition that lncRNAs make effects in many biological and pathological processes such as stem cell pluripotency, neurogenesis, oncogenesis and etc. This review focuses on the functional roles of lncRNAs in epigenetics and related research progress are summarized.

lncRNA

  • Cao J. (2014) The functional role of long non-coding RNAs and epigenetics. Biol Proced Online 16:11. [article]

Long non-coding RNAs in cancer: implications for personalized therapy

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, pseudogenes and circRNAs) have recently come into light as powerful players in cancer pathogenesis and it is becoming increasingly clear that they have the potential of greatly contributing to the spread and success of personalized cancer medicine. In this concise review, the authors briefly:

  1. Introduce these three classes of long non-coding RNAs.
  2. Discuss their applications as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.
  3. Describe their appeal as targets and as drugs,
  4. Point out the limitations that still lie ahead of their definitive entry into clinical practice.
  • Vitiello M, Tuccoli A, Poliseno L. (2014) Long non-coding RNAs in cancer: implications for personalized therapy. Cell Oncol (Dordr) [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Long non-coding RNAs in cancer: implications for personalized therapy

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, pseudogenes and circRNAs) have recently come into light as powerful players in cancer pathogenesis and it is becoming increasingly clear that they have the potential of greatly contributing to the spread and success of personalized cancer medicine. In this concise review, the authors briefly introduce these three classes of long non-coding RNAs. We then discuss their applications as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Finally, we describe their appeal as targets and as drugs, while pointing out the limitations that still lie ahead of their definitive entry into clinical practice.

lncRNA

  • Vitiello M, Tuccoli A, Poliseno L. (2014) Long non-coding RNAs in cancer: implications for personalized therapy. Cell Oncol (Dordr). [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]

Non-coding RNA – Zooming in on lncRNA functions

lncRNALong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of gene expression; however, in contrast to transcription factors, their functional domain architecture remains poorly understood. Now, a new method has been developed to simultaneously map RNA–RNA, RNA–DNA and RNA–protein interactions at the level of individual RNA domains with increased sensitivity.

Quinn et al. developed a method called domain-specific chromatin isolation by RNA purification (dChIRP), in which several antisense oligonucleotide pools are used to target specific domains of lncRNAs. In this method, cells are subjected to fixation, crosslinking and sonication, and the resultant sheared chromatin is hybridized to the biotinylated oligonucleotide pools to recover chromatin fragments containing specific lncRNA domains of interest. The RNA, DNA and protein components associated with the lncRNA domains can then be analysed separately.

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