Review Paper

How do lncRNAs regulate transcription?

lncRNA

It has recently become apparent that RNA, itself the product of transcription, is a major regulator of the transcriptional process. In particular, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are so numerous in eukaryotes, function in many cases as transcriptional regulators. These RNAs function through binding to histone-modifying complexes, to DNA binding proteins (including transcription factors), and even to RNA polymerase II. ...

Read More »

The Function and Therapeutic Potential of Long Non-coding RNAs in Cardiovascular Development and Disease

The popularization of genome-wide analyses and RNA sequencing led to the discovery that a large part of the human genome, while effectively transcribed, does not encode proteins. Long non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression in both normal and disease states. Studies of long non-coding RNAs expressed in the heart, in combination with gene association studies, revealed ...

Read More »

Emerging mechanisms of long noncoding RNA function during normal and malignant hematopoiesis

lncRNA

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as vital components of gene programs controlling cell differentiation and function. Central to their functions is an ability to act as scaffolds or as decoys that recruit or sequester effector proteins from their DNA, RNA, or protein targets. lncRNA-modulated effectors include regulators of transcription, chromatin organization, RNA processing, and translation, such that lncRNAs ...

Read More »

lncRNAs and immunity – watchdogs for host pathogen interactions

lncRNA

Immune responses combat various infectious agents by inducing inflammatory responses, antimicrobial pathways and adaptive immunity. The polygenic responses to these external stimuli are temporally and coordinately regulated. Specific lncRNAs are induced to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses which can function through various target interactions like RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein interaction and hence affect the immunogenic regulation at various stages ...

Read More »

The role of a new class of long noncoding RNAs transcribed from ultraconserved regions in cancer

lncRNA

Ultraconserved regions (UCRs) represent a relatively new class of non-coding genomic sequences highly conserved between human, rat and mouse genomes. These regions can reside within exons of protein-coding genes, despite the vast majority of them localizes within introns or intergenic regions. Several studies have undoubtedly demonstrated that most of these regions are actively transcribed in normal cells/tissues, where they contribute ...

Read More »

The emerging molecular biology toolbox for the study of long noncoding RNA biology

lncRNA

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes. However, due to the unique nature of lncRNAs and the consequential difficulties associated with their characterization, there is a growing disparity between the rate at which lncRNAs are being discovered and the assignment of biological function to these transcripts. Here researchers from the CSIR South Africa present a molecular biology ...

Read More »

Regulated expression of the lncRNA TERRA and its impact on telomere biology

lncrna

The telomere protects against genomic instability by minimizing the accelerated end resection of the genetic material, a phenomenon that results in severe chromosome instability that could favor the transformation of a cell by enabling the emergence of tumor-promoting mutations. Some mechanisms that avoid this fate, such as capping and loop formation, have been very well characterized; however, telomeric non-coding transcripts, ...

Read More »

Gene regulation of mammalian long non-coding RNA

lncRNA

RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes two classes of RNAs, protein-coding and non-protein-coding (ncRNA) genes. ncRNAs are also synthesized by RNA polymerases I and III (Pol I and III). In humans, the number of ncRNA genes exceeds more than twice that of protein-coding genes. However, the history of studying Pol II-synthesized ncRNA is relatively short. Since early 2000s, important biological ...

Read More »

The Role of Long Non Coding RNAs in the Repair of DNA Double Strand Breaks

lncRNA

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are abrasions caused in both strands of the DNA duplex following exposure to both exogenous and endogenous conditions. Such abrasions have deleterious effect in cells leading to genome rearrangements and cell death. A number of repair systems including homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) have been evolved to minimize the fatal effects of these ...

Read More »

Long noncoding RNAs coordinate functions between mitochondria and the nucleus

lncRNA

In animal cells, mitochondria are the primary powerhouses and metabolic factories. They also contain genomes and can produce mitochondrial-specific nucleic acids and proteins. To maintain homeostasis of the entire cell, an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by encoded noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), as well as proteins, is required. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) contain characteristic structures, and they are involved ...

Read More »