by Nikolaos Mellios, Mriganka Sur RNA acts as the intermediary between genes and proteins, but the function of pieces of More »
The abundance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their wide range of functional roles in human cells are fast becoming More »
The differentiation and activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells is highly dependent on a coordinated set of transcriptional More »
The majority of the genomic DNA sequence in mammalian and other higher organisms can be transcribed into abundant functional RNA transcripts, especially regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are expressed in a developmentally and species-specific regulated manner. Here, the authors review various regulatory non-coding RNAs, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and summarize two and eight kinds of distinct modes of action for sncRNAs and lncRNAs respectively, by which functional ncRNAs mediate the regulation of intracellular events.
- Huang B1, Zhang R. (2014) Regulatory non-coding RNAs: revolutionizing the RNA world. Mol Biol Rep [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of molecules that function in gene regulation in yeast, plants and mammals. The precise mechanisms of action for lncRNAs, however, remain largely unclear. The GAL gene cluster has been used as a model system to study the function of these molecules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a historical focus on lncRNA-dependent repression. Strikingly, in characterizing the role of the RNA helicase Dbp2, we discovered that the GAL lncRNAs could also promote transcriptional activation of the targeted GAL protein-coding genes. Interestingly, these lncRNAs help determine how quickly the GAL genes can be induced in response to galactose, without altering final steady-state transcript levels. This unexpected finding suggests that one role for lncRNAs is to promote the timing of gene expression. Herein, the authors discuss their discoveries in the context of current models of lncRNA functions in eukaryotes, with a key emphasis on future challenges for genomic research.
- Wang S, Tran EJ. (2013) Unexpected functions of lncRNAs in gene regulation. Commun Integr Biol 6(6), e27610. [article]
The differentiation and activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells is highly dependent on a coordinated set of transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. Chromatin-modifiers and transcription factors regulate the accessibility and transcription of immune genes, respectively. Immune cells also express miRNA and RNA-binding proteins that provide an additional layer of regulation at the mRNA level. However, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which have been primarily studied in the context of genomic imprinting, cancer, and cell differentiation, are now emerging as important regulators of immune cell differentiation and activation. In this review, the authors provide a brief overview of lncRNAs, their known functions in immunity, and discuss their potential to be more broadly involved in other aspects of the immune response.
- Fitzgerald KA, Caffrey DR. (2014) Long noncoding RNAs in innate and adaptive immunity. Curr Opin Immunol 26C, 140-146. [abstract]
Incoming search terms:
- human adaptive rna immunity
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) interact with the nuclear architecture and are involved in fundamental biological mechanisms, such as imprinting, histone-code regulation, gene activation, gene repression, lineage determination, and cell proliferation, all by regulating gene expression. Understanding the lncRNA regulation of transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene regulation expands our knowledge of disease. Several associations between altered lncRNA function and gene expression have been linked to clinical disease phenotypes. Early advances have been made in developing lncRNAs as biomarkers. Several mouse models reveal that human lncRNAs have very diverse functions. Their involvement in gene and genome regulation as well as disease underscores the importance of lncRNA-mediated regulatory networks. Because of their tissue-specific expression potential, their function as activators or repressors, and their selective targeting of genes, lncRNAs are of potential therapeutic interest. The authors review the regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs, their major functional principles, and discuss their role in Mendelian disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.
- Maass PG, Luft FC, Bähring S. (2014) Long non-coding RNA in health and disease. J Mol Med (Berl) [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]