Review Paper

Long noncoding RNA (lincRNA), a new paradigm in gene expression control

lncRNA

Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are defined as RNA transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides. By definition, these RNAs must not have open reading frames that encode proteins. Many of these transcripts are encoded by RNA polymerase II, are spliced, and are poly-adenylated. This final fact indicates that there is a trove of information about lincRNAs in databases such ...

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A critical overview of long non-coding RNA in glioma etiology

etiology

With the development of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, a growing body of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been identified and is receiving increasing attention. LncRNAs are non-protein encoding transcripts whose functions are crucial for advancing our comprehensive understanding of biological processes in human health and diseases, specifically glioma. It has been established that lncRNAs are differently expressed in ...

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Mining long noncoding RNA in livestock

lncRNA

Genome-wide association studies in livestock based on high-resolution genotyping and sequencing have revealed that the majority of signals associated with complex phenotypic traits are located outside of annotated protein-coding regions in the genome. The approaches of next-generation sequencing applied to whole transcriptome and chromatin profiles have provided information about existing genome-wide transcriptional activity and have revealed that the genomes are ...

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Long noncoding and circular RNAs in lung cancer

lncRNA

Better understanding and management of lung cancer are needed. Although much has been learned from known protein coding genes, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a relatively new and fast evolving large family of transcripts, have recently generated much attention for new discoveries. LncRNAs play critical regulatory functions and are emerging as new players in tumorigenesis and phenotypic determinators of lung cancer. ...

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Linking Long Noncoding RNA Localization and Function

lncRNA

Recent studies have revealed the regulatory potential of many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Most lncRNAs, like mRNAs, are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and are capped, polyadenylated, and spliced. However, the subcellular fates of lncRNAs are distinct and the mechanisms of action are diverse. Investigating the mechanisms that determine the subcellular fate of lncRNAs has the potential to provide new ...

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Understanding long non-coding RNAs using comparative genomics

compare

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged in recent years as major players in a multitude of pathways across species, but it remains challenging to understand which of them are important and how their functions are performed. Comparative sequence analysis has been instrumental for studying proteins and small RNAs, but the rapid evolution of lncRNAs poses new challenges that demand new ...

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Linking Long Noncoding RNA Localization and Function

lncRNA

Recent studies have revealed the regulatory potential of many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Most lncRNAs, like mRNAs, are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and are capped, polyadenylated, and spliced. However, the subcellular fates of lncRNAs are distinct and the mechanisms of action are diverse. Investigating the mechanisms that determine the subcellular fate of lncRNAs has the potential to provide new ...

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The roles of long noncoding RNAs in chromosome domains

chromatin

The cell nucleus is highly organized and functionally compartmentalized. Double-stranded naked DNA is complexed with core histones and assembled into nucleosomes and chromatin, which are surrounded by nuclear domains composed of RNAs and proteins. Recently, three-dimensional views of chromosome organization beyond the level of the nucleosome have been established and are composed of several layers of chromosome domains. Only a ...

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The bright side of dark matter: lncRNAs in cancer

lncRNA

The traditional view of genome organization has been upended in the last decade with the discovery of vast amounts of non-protein-coding transcription. After initial concerns that this “dark matter” of the genome was transcriptional noise, it is apparent that a subset of these noncoding RNAs are functional. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes resemble protein-coding genes in several key aspects, and ...

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The role of noncoding RNA in vascular remodelling

lncRNA

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are becoming fundamentally important in the pathophysiology relating to injury-induced vascular remodelling. In this review, researchers from the Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre highlight recent studies that demonstrate the involvement of ncRNAs in vein graft disease, in in-stent restenosis and in pulmonary arterial hypertension, with a particular focus on endothelial ...

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