Review Paper

lncRNAs – an Emerging Powerhouse in the Battle between Life and Death of Tumor Cells

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a class of non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that have aptitude for regulating gene expression at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional or epigenetic levels. In recent years, lncRNAs, which are believed to be the largest transcript class in the transcriptomes, have emerged as important players in a variety of biological processes. Notably, the identification and ...

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AR promotes RCC via lncRNA interaction

lncRNA

The androgen receptor (AR) regulates progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) via a mechanism dependent on VHL status and hypoxia, according to data published in Oncogene. RCC is associated with inactivation of the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) suppressor protein, which targets hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. VHL inactivation is associated with a good prognosis, but the mechanisms of this effect are ...

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Novel Insights into the Role of Long Noncoding RNA in Ocular Diseases

lncRNA

Recent advances have suggested that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed in ocular tissues and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of different types of eye diseases. Here, the authors summarize the functions and mechanisms of known aberrantly-expressed lncRNAs and present a brief overview of relevant reports about lncRNAs in such ocular diseases as glaucoma, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), ...

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Long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer – what we know in 2015

lncRNA

Lung cancer ranks as the first most common cancer and the first leading cause of cancer-related death in China and worldwide. Due to the difficulty in early diagnosis and the onset of cancer metastasis, the 5-year survival rate of lung cancer remains extremely low. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which lacking protein-coding ability, have recently emerged as pivotal participants in biological ...

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Noncoding RNAs as potential biomarkers to predict the outcome in pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a common digestive system cancer, is highly malignant and has a poor disease outcome. Currently, all available examination and detection methods cannot accurately predict the clinical outcome. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify novel molecular biomarkers for personalized medication and to significantly improve the overall outcome. The “noncoding RNAs” (ncRNAs) are a group of RNAs ...

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Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics

lncRNA

The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their large number and biological significance. Many ...

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Long Noncoding RNAs in Cardiovascular Diseases

lncRNA

In recent years, increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play important roles in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions. Besides small noncoding RNAs (eg, microRNAs), >200-nucleotide long transcripts, namely long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), can interfere with gene expressions and signaling pathways at various stages. In the cardiovascular system, studies have detected and characterized the expression of lncRNAs under ...

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Post-transcriptional regulation of long noncoding RNAs in cancer

lncRNA

It is a great surprise that the genomes of mammals and other eukaryotes harbor many thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although these long noncoding transcripts were once considered to be simply transcriptional noise or cloning artifacts, multiple studies have suggested that lncRNAs are emerging as new players in diverse human diseases, especially in cancer, and that the molecular mechanisms ...

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Discovery and annotation of long noncoding RNAs

lncRNA

Recent advances in RNA-sequencing technologies have led to the discovery of thousands of previously unannotated noncoding transcripts, including many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) whose functions remain largely unknown. Discussed here are considerations and best practices in lncRNA identification and annotation, which we hope will foster functional and mechanistic exploration. Perhaps the biggest surprise of the postgenomic era has been the ...

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A pathophysiological view of the long non-coding RNA world

lncRNA

Because cells are constantly exposed to micro-environmental changes, they require the ability to adapt to maintain a dynamic equilibrium. Proteins are considered critical for the regulation of gene expression, which is a fundamental process in determining the cellular responses to stimuli. Recently, revolutionary findings in RNA research and the advent of high-throughput genomic technologies have revealed a pervasive transcription of ...

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