Review Paper

Understanding the Functions of Long Non-Coding RNAs through Their Higher-Order Structures

lncRNA

Although thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered in eukaryotes, very few molecular mechanisms have been characterized due to an insufficient understanding of lncRNA structure. Therefore, investigations of lncRNA structure and subsequent elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms are urgently needed. However, since lncRNA are high molecular weight molecules, which makes their crystallization difficult, obtaining information about their structure ...

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The Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 is A Novel Biomarker in Various Cancers

lncRNA

Malignant tumors are harmful to human health and have become a leading cause of mortality worldwide. According to the “global cancer report 2012” released by the World Health Organization (WHO), the global incidence of cancer is rapidly increasing. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for the research and clinical treatment of tumors. Furthermore, tumor molecular markers are of great practical ...

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Circulating long non-coding RNAs in cancer

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) comprise a diverse class of RNA transcripts >200 nucleotides in length with limited protein-coding potential. In addition to their possible role in cancer biology, circulating lncRNAs have emerged as a new class of promising cancer biomarkers, with independent studies demonstrating the feasibility of their use as tools in the diagnosis and prognosis of different types of ...

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The Emerging Role and Promise of Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer Treatment

lncRNA

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death around the world. The advanced discovery of numerous long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has dramatically changed the understanding of biology of human cancers, including lung cancer. LncRNAs are a group of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) with a length greater than 200 nucleotides with limited or no protein-coding capacity. Increasing evidence has shown that ...

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Long Non-coding RNAs in the Cytoplasm

lncRNA

Mammalian genome is pervasively transcribed into many different complex families of RNA. However, less than 2% of mammalian genome is transcribed into mRNA to encode proteins, whereas major portion of the genome is transcribed into interweaved and overlapping transcripts that include thousands of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts. ncRNAs more than 200 nucleotides in length are called long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), which ...

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Unique features of long non-coding RNA biogenesis and function

lncRNA

The transcriptional landscape of all organisms is far more complex than was originally imagined, as the vast majority of genomic sequence is pervasively transcribed into a diverse range of protein-coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). In this expanded view of both the genome and the transcriptome, our catalogue of genetic elements is now brimming with long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a ...

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Long noncoding RNAs in kidney and cardiovascular diseases

lncRNA

Transcription of a large part of the human genome results in RNA transcripts that have limited or no protein-coding potential. These include long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are defined as being ≥200 nucleotides long. Unlike microRNAs, which have been extensively studied, little is known about the functional role of lncRNAs. However, studies over the past 5 years have shown that ...

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lncRNAs – an Emerging Powerhouse in the Battle between Life and Death of Tumor Cells

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a class of non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that have aptitude for regulating gene expression at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional or epigenetic levels. In recent years, lncRNAs, which are believed to be the largest transcript class in the transcriptomes, have emerged as important players in a variety of biological processes. Notably, the identification and ...

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AR promotes RCC via lncRNA interaction

lncRNA

The androgen receptor (AR) regulates progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) via a mechanism dependent on VHL status and hypoxia, according to data published in Oncogene. RCC is associated with inactivation of the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) suppressor protein, which targets hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. VHL inactivation is associated with a good prognosis, but the mechanisms of this effect are ...

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Novel Insights into the Role of Long Noncoding RNA in Ocular Diseases

lncRNA

Recent advances have suggested that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed in ocular tissues and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of different types of eye diseases. Here, the authors summarize the functions and mechanisms of known aberrantly-expressed lncRNAs and present a brief overview of relevant reports about lncRNAs in such ocular diseases as glaucoma, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), ...

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