Review Paper

Linking Long Noncoding RNA Localization and Function

lncRNA

Recent studies have revealed the regulatory potential of many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Most lncRNAs, like mRNAs, are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and are capped, polyadenylated, and spliced. However, the subcellular fates of lncRNAs are distinct and the mechanisms of action are diverse. Investigating the mechanisms that determine the subcellular fate of lncRNAs has the potential to provide new ...

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The roles of long noncoding RNAs in chromosome domains

chromatin

The cell nucleus is highly organized and functionally compartmentalized. Double-stranded naked DNA is complexed with core histones and assembled into nucleosomes and chromatin, which are surrounded by nuclear domains composed of RNAs and proteins. Recently, three-dimensional views of chromosome organization beyond the level of the nucleosome have been established and are composed of several layers of chromosome domains. Only a ...

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The bright side of dark matter: lncRNAs in cancer

lncRNA

The traditional view of genome organization has been upended in the last decade with the discovery of vast amounts of non-protein-coding transcription. After initial concerns that this “dark matter” of the genome was transcriptional noise, it is apparent that a subset of these noncoding RNAs are functional. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes resemble protein-coding genes in several key aspects, and ...

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The role of noncoding RNA in vascular remodelling

lncRNA

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are becoming fundamentally important in the pathophysiology relating to injury-induced vascular remodelling. In this review, researchers from the Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre highlight recent studies that demonstrate the involvement of ncRNAs in vein graft disease, in in-stent restenosis and in pulmonary arterial hypertension, with a particular focus on endothelial ...

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Challenges in the analysis of long noncoding RNA functionality

lncRNA

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of diverse biological functions. Although mechanistic models are starting to emerge, it is also clear that the lncRNA field needs appropriate model systems in order to better elucidate the functions of lncRNAs and their roles in both physiological and pathological conditions. The field of lncRNAs is new, and the biochemical and ...

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Role of long non-coding RNA in tumor drug resistance

lncRNA

Chemotherapy has been extensively used in tumor treatment, including either systemic or local treatment. Miserably, in many kinds of cancers, chemotherapy is gradually insensitive. The mechanisms of tumor drug resistance have been widely explored, yet have not been fully characterized. With several studies in the development of drug resistance, recent works have highlighted the involvement of non-coding RNAs in tumor ...

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Long non-coding RNA regulation of liver cancer stem cell self-renewal offers new therapeutic targeting opportunities

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) are critical regulators of gene expression, and can reprogram the transcriptome to modulate cellular processes involved in cellular growth and differentiation, and thereby contribute to tumorigenesis. In addition to effects on tumor cell growth, survival and cell signaling, lncRNA can modulate cancer stem cell (CSC) behavior, including the expression of pluripotency factors. The identification of lncRNA ...

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Cancer subtypes classification using long non-coding RNA

lncRNA

Inter-tumor heterogeneity might explain divergent clinical evolution of cancers bearing similar pathological features. In the last decade, genomic has highly improved tumor subtypes classification through the identification of oncogenic or tumor suppressor drivers. In addition, epigenetics and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new fields for investigation, which might also account for tumor heterogeneity. There is growing evidence that ...

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Long noncoding RNAs as novel predictors of survival in human cancer

lncRNA

Expression of various long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may affect cancer prognosis. Researchers from Stanford University examined all evidence on the potential role of lncRNAs as novel predictors of survival in human cancer. The researchers systematically searched through PubMed, to identify all published studies reporting on the association between any individual lncRNA or group of lncRNAs with prognosis in human cancer ...

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Long non-coding RNA – computational models

lncRNA

LncRNAs have attracted lots of attentions from researchers worldwide in recent decades. With the rapid advances in both experimental technology and computational prediction algorithm, thousands of lncRNA have been identified in eukaryotic organisms ranging from nematodes to humans in the past few years. More and more research evidences have indicated that lncRNAs are involved in almost the whole life cycle ...

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