News

Female immune cells use lncRNA to keep their second X chromosome shut off

lncRNA

Autoimmune diseases tend to strike women more than men and having multiple X chromosomes could be the main reason why. While a process called X chromosome inactivation serves to balance out gene dosage between males and females, some genes on the “inactive X” chromosome in immune cells can sometimes escape this process, giving women an extra dose of immunity-related gene ...

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Researchers find novel lncRNA mechanism of resistance to anti-cancer drugs

lncrna

The targeted anti-cancer therapies cetuximab and panitumumab are mainstays of treatment for advanced colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. However, many patients have tumors with genetic mutations that make them resistant to these anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, or the cancers develop resistance during treatment. Researchers seeking to understand mechanisms of ...

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lnRNA discovery could help boost plant heat, drought tolerance

Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists have discovered a ribonucleic acid, or RNA, that can increase the thale cress plant’s resistance to stress from drought and salt. The discovery could help illuminate a new pathway to engineering drought- and salt-tolerant plants, including food crops, said Dr. Liming Xiong, AgriLife Research associate professor, Dallas. The research is published in the journal Plant ...

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UTA researchers discover connection between low oxygen levels and the lncRNA HOTAIR

lncrna

University of Texas at Arlington researchers have established a link between hypoxia, a condition that reduces the flow of oxygen to tissues, and HOTAIR, a noncoding RNA or molecule that has been implicated in several types of cancer. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is present in all living cells. Its primary role is to carry instructions from DNA. In a study ...

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Novel RNA Discoveries Could Improve Stem Cell Research

A recently described variety of RNA closely associated with gene expression was found to be largely cell-type specific, raising the possibility this variety of RNA sequences may be able to be used as a marker in stem cell research. Only about 20 percent of RNA codes for proteins, and the remaining 80 percent, called non-coding RNA, is thought to be ...

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Gene therapy using lncRNA could lower risk for heart disease

lncRNA

FINDINGS Scientists from UCLA and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute successfully used a gene that suppresses cholesterol levels as part of a treatment to reduce plaque in mice with a disorder called familial hypercholesterolemia. In a preclinical study, researchers found that the gene, LeXis, lowered cholesterol and blockages in the arteries, and the treatment appeared to reduce the build-up of ...

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Long, mysterious strips of RNA contribute to low sperm count

lncRNA

Scientists at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have found distinctive portions of genetic material–known as lncRNAs–that help sperm develop. Male mice lacking a particular lncRNA have low sperm count, suggesting lncRNAs could represent novel infertility drug targets. “Infertility affects 10 to 15 percent of couples in the United States, with the vast majority of cases due to unknown ...

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MUSC researchers show how long non-coding RNA promotes tumor formation

A mechanism that pushes a certain gene to produce a non-coding form of RNA instead of its protein-coding alternative can promote the growth of cancer, report researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) in an article published online ahead of print on August 21, 2017 by Nature Cell Biology. The non-coding RNA soaks up a microRNA that prevents epithelial-to-mesenchymal ...

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Researchers Show Curcumin Protects Against Chemoresistant Pancreatic Cancer Through lncRNA

lncRNA

Curcumin is known for its powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits, but a new study by researchers at Baylor Scott & White Research Institute reveals an additional benefit: its potential to overcome chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a common but aggressive form of cancer in the pancreas. The study, “Curcumin sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine by attenuating PRC2 subunit ...

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Genome’s ‘dark’ side steps into spotlight of autism research

lncRNA

from SpectrumNews by Nicholette Zeliadt – Given that genes make up a paltry 2 percent of the genome, they’ve received a disproportionate amount of attention from autism researchers. Slowly, however, the other 98 percent of the genome — the so-called ‘dark matter’ — is emerging from the shadows. Once considered nonfunctional or ‘junk DNA,’ these non-gene regions are now known ...

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