Scientists develop a novel method to suppress malaria parasite’s virulence genes, break the code of its immune evasion
Revealed: how malaria evades the immune response by using long noncoding RNA to express one gene while silencing others Up More »
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulatory molecules in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. However, the precise mechanism More »
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in various cellular contexts and diseases by diverse mechanisms. With the rapid growth of identified lncRNAs and disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), there is a great demand to study SNPs in lncRNAs. Aiming to provide a useful resource about lncRNA SNPs, researchers from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology systematically identified SNPs in lncRNAs and analyzed their potential impacts on lncRNA structure and function. In total, they identified 495,729 and 777,095 SNPs in more than 30,000 lncRNA transcripts in human and mouse, respectively. A large number of SNPs were predicted with the potential to impact on the miRNA-lncRNA interaction. The experimental evidence and conservation of miRNA-lncRNA interaction, as well as miRNA expressions from TCGA were also integrated to prioritize the miRNA-lncRNA interactions and SNPs on the binding sites. Furthermore, by mapping SNPs to GWAS results, they found that 142 human lncRNA SNPs are GWAS tagSNPs and 197,827 lncRNA SNPs are in the GWAS linkage disequilibrium regions. All these data for human and mouse lncRNAs were imported into lncRNASNP database, which includes two sub-databases lncRNASNP-human and lncRNASNP-mouse. The lncRNASNP database has a user-friendly interface for searching and browsing through the SNP, lncRNA and miRNA sections.
Availability – the lncRNASNP database is available at: http://bioinfo.life.hust.edu.cn/lncRNASNP/
- Gong J, Liu W, Zhang J, Miao X, Guo AY. (2015) lncRNASNP: a database of SNPs in lncRNAs and their potential functions in human and mouse. Nucleic Acids Res 43(Database issue):D181-6. [article]
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a common digestive system cancer, is highly malignant and has a poor disease outcome. Currently, all available examination and detection methods cannot accurately predict the clinical outcome. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify novel molecular biomarkers for personalized medication and to significantly improve the overall outcome. The “noncoding RNAs” (ncRNAs) are a group of RNAs that do not code for proteins, and they are categorized as structural RNAs and regulatory RNAs. It has been shown that microRNAs and long ncRNAs function as regulatory RNAs to affect the progression of various diseases. Many studies have confirmed a role for ncRNAs in the progression of PDAC during the last few years. Because of the significant role of ncRNAs in PDAC, ncRNA profiling may be used to predict PDAC outcome with high accuracy. This review comprehensively analyzes the value of ncRNAs as potential biomarkers to predict the outcome in PDAC and the possible mechanisms thereof.
- Jin K, Luo G, Xiao Z, Liu Z, Liu C, Ji S, Xu J, Liu L, Long J, Ni Q, Yu X. (2015) Noncoding RNAs as potential biomarkers to predict the outcome in pancreatic cancer. Drug Des Devel Ther 9:1247-1255. [article]
Researchers from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research compared quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), RNA-seq and capture sequencing (CaptureSeq) in terms of their ability to assemble and quantify long noncoding RNAs and novel coding exons across 20 human tissues. CaptureSeq was superior for the detection and quantification of genes with low expression, showed little technical variation and accurately measured differential expression. This approach expands and refines previous annotations and simultaneously generates an expression atlas.
- Clark MB, Mercer TR, Bussotti G, Leonardi T, Haynes KR, Crawford J, Brunck ME, Cao KA, Thomas GP, Chen WY, Taft RJ, Nielsen LK, Enright AJ, Mattick JS, Dinger ME. (2015) Quantitative gene profiling of long noncoding RNAs with targeted RNA sequencing. Nat Methods [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]
The domestic-animal lncRNA database (ALDB) is the first comprehensive database with a focus on the domestic-animal lncRNAs. ALDB currently comprises 12,103 pig lincRNAs, 8,923 chicken lincRNAs, and 8,250 cow lincRNAs, which have been identified using computational pipeline in this study. Moreover, ALDB provides related useful data, such as genome-wide expression profile and animal quantitative trait loci (QTLs), that is not available in the existing lncRNA database (lncRNAdb and NONCODE), along with convenient tools, such as BLAST, GBrowse and flexible search functionalities.
- Li, Aimin (2015): ALDB: a domestic-animal long noncoding RNA database. figshare.
Functional micropeptides can be concealed within RNAs that appear to be noncoding. Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center discovered a conserved micropeptide, which we named myoregulin (MLN), encoded by a skeletal muscle-specific RNA annotated as a putative long noncoding RNA. MLN shares structural and functional similarity with phospholamban (PLN) and sarcolipin (SLN), which inhibit SERCA, the membrane pump that controls muscle relaxation by regulating Ca(2+) uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). MLN interacts directly with SERCA and impedes Ca(2+) uptake into the SR. In contrast to PLN and SLN, which are expressed in cardiac and slow skeletal muscle in mice, MLN is robustly expressed in all skeletal muscle. Genetic deletion of MLN in mice enhances Ca(2+) handling in skeletal muscle and improves exercise performance. These findings identify MLN as an important regulator of skeletal muscle physiology and highlight the possibility that additional micropeptides are encoded in the many RNAs currently annotated as noncoding.
- Anderson DM, Anderson KM, Chang CL, Makarewich CA, Nelson BR, McAnally JR, Kasaragod P, Shelton JM, Liou J, Bassel-Duby R, Olson EN. (2015) A micropeptide encoded by a putative long noncoding RNA regulates muscle performance. Cell 160(4):595-606. [abstract]